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# Peace & Conflict / Human Security

## SOCIAL sciences

**Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.**

Social science as a whole has many branches. These social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original “science of society”, established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.

Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research). The term “social research” has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.

## Economics

**Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.**

Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies). See glossary of economics.

Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing “what is”, and normative economics, advocating “what ought to be”; between economic theory and applied economics; between rational and behavioural economics; and between mainstream economics and heterodox economics.[5]

Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, in business, finance, health care, and government. Economic analysis is sometimes also applied to such diverse subjects as crime, education,[6] the family, law, politics, religion,[7] social institutions, war,[8] science,[9] and the environment.[10]

## Econometrics

**Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data in order to give empirical content to economic relationships.**

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

## Microeconometrics

**Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data in order to give empirical content to economic relationships.**

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

## Macroeconometrics

**Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data in order to give empirical content to economic relationships.**

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

## Econometric Methods

**The Econometric Methods make use of statistical tools and economic theories in combination to estimate the economic variables and to forecast the intended variables.**

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

## Topic in advance Econometrics

**The Econometric Methods make use of statistical tools and economic theories in combination to estimate the economic variables and to forecast the intended variables.**

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

## Financial Econometrics

**The Econometric Methods make use of statistical tools and economic theories in combination to estimate the economic variables and to forecast the intended variables.**

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

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Social science as a whole has many branches. These social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original “science of society”, established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.

Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research). The term “social research” has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.

Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies). See glossary of economics.

Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing “what is”, and normative economics, advocating “what ought to be”; between economic theory and applied economics; between rational and behavioural economics; and between mainstream economics and heterodox economics.[5]

Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, in business, finance, health care, and government. Economic analysis is sometimes also applied to such diverse subjects as crime, education,[6] the family, law, politics, religion,[7] social institutions, war,[8] science,[9] and the environment.[10]

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.

[1] More precisely, it is “the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference”.[2] An introductory economics textbook describes econometrics as allowing economists “to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships”.[3] The first known use of the term “econometrics” (in cognate form) was by Polish economist Paweł Ciompa in 1910.[4] Jan Tinbergen is considered by many to be one of the founding fathers of econometrics.[5][6][7] Ragnar Frisch is credited with coining the term in the sense in which it is used today.[8]

A basic tool for econometrics is the multiple linear regression model.[9] Econometric theory uses statistical theory and mathematical statistics to evaluate and develop econometric methods.[10][11] Econometricians try to find estimators that have desirable statistical properties including unbiasedness, efficiency, and consistency. Applied econometrics uses theoretical econometrics and real-world data for assessing economic theories, developing econometric models, analysing economic history, and forecasting.